To copy files and folders from one server to another server we may need to use file sharing services such as NFS or samba (SMB) sharing. It is not practical to create an NFS or samba server just to copy files and folders. Linux provides an alternative solution where we can use scp command-line utility tool to securely copy files from one machine to another.
Scp , Also known as secure copy, is used to copy files between hosts over the network. Scp protocol uses SSH for data transfer using the same authentication with the same security as SSH. Just like SSH, you need to know the credentials of the remote machine for authentication. In this article, we will cover 16 quick scp command with examples. Let’s start with syntax of scp command.
scp [options] [files or directory] [destination_username]@[target host]:/[destination path]
- [files or directory] is the source file or directory you want to copy.
- [destination username] is the user on destination host
- [target host] is the hostname or IP of the destination
- [destination path] is the path of the destination host where you want to keep the copied files/folder.
Some of the possible options of scp command are :
- -C Enable Compression during transfer
- -i ssh private key
- -l limit the bandwidth during transfer
- -P SSH port number of destination host
- -p Preserves permissions
- -q Suppress warning message and output
- -r Copy files and directory recursively
- -v verbose output
Let’s deep dive into day to day scp command examples
1. Copy file from local server to remote server
To copy a file collection.txt from your current working directory to tmp file of another server use the following command.
$ scp collection.txt email@example.com:/tmp
2. Copy Multiple files from local server to remote server
To copy multiple files to a remote machine, you can use scp command with file name. In this example, multiple files are copied to a remote machine.
$ scp /tmp/config.yaml /var/log/message.log firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/Downloads
3. Copy directory instead of files
Sometimes you may need to copy the directory instead of files separately. You can use -r option to copy entire directory to remote machine. It will also ensure that files and sub-directories are copied recursively on destination host.
$ scp -r /var email@example.com:/root/
4. Find the copy status (verbose output)
By using the option -v along with file name, you can find the copy status or the verbose output of scp command
$ scp -v /var/log/syslog firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/
5. Preserving source files/directory timestamp
When we copy files/directories to a remote host, the copied files show the latest timestamp on the destination side. To copy files / directories exactly as source, use scp command with option -p so exact timestamp and permissions will be copied.
$ scp -p myfile.txt email@example.com:/root/collection
In case you are copying a directory and want to maintain source timestamp, then use ‘-rpv’ option.
$ scp -rpv /var/log firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/collection
6. Compress files/ directories during the copy or transfer
By using scp command with option -C , files/directories will be compressed during the transfer to the destination server. Data compression takes place at the network level and in the destination server, data size will be the same as source host.
$ scp -C ubuntu-20.04-iso.tar.gz email@example.com:/root/Downloads
7. Use ssh key file instead of password
If the ssh configuration is made with private key authentication only then you may need to use a key file to access the remote machine. Files can be copied to destination using scp command along with key file as:
$ scp -i private.key file firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/Downloads
Where, private.key file is the ssh private key for remote server authentication
8. Suppress scp command output
Scp command generate output such as error notifications, progress meter and warnings, these can be suppressed with option -q as:
$ scp -q -r /var/spool/mail email@example.com:/root/Downloads
9. Scp command to limit bandwidth
Using scp command, the bandwidth of file transfer can be limited by using -l option. In the below example, the bandwidth is limited to 100 kbit/s.
$ scp -l 100 ubuntu-20.04.tar.gz firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/Downloads
10. Transfer file using different ssh port
If you want to use different port than default port 22 to transfer the files and directories, then you can use scp command with option -P and specify the port number as:
$ scp -P 8022 /mnt/config.txt email@example.com:/root/Downloads
Where 8022 is the ssh port of the remote host.
11. Use DES encryption to transfer the file
By default, AES-128 encryption algorithm is used by Linux to encrypt files and folders during transfer. Other encryption algorithms can be used by using option -c along with scp command. In this example, 3des-cbc cipher is used for encryption.
$ scp -c 3des-cbc file firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/Downloads
12. Copy a file from remote host to local server
Files/Directories can be copied from remote host to local using scp command as:
$ scp email@example.com:/root/Downloads/file /tmp
Where , root is the remote server’s username 192.168.178.128 is the IP address of the remote host and file is the name of the file.
To copy directory from remote host to local server use the scp command with -r option as:
$ scp -r firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/Documents /var/tmp
Where, Documents is the name of directory on remote host.
13. Transfer files across two remote hosts
You can use scp to copy files between two hosts also. In the following example, pratik’s file from the home directory is transferred to the umesh tmp folder on a different server. Make sure you have access to both source and destination server.
$ scp email@example.com:~/backup.tar.gz firstname.lastname@example.org:/tmp/
14. Transfer file based in IPv4 address only
If you want to use only IPV4 address to contact remote server to transfer files/directories, then you need to use -4 option as:
$ scp -4 file email@example.com:/root/Downloads
If you want to use IPV6 address, then use the scp command as:
$ scp -6 file firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/Downloads
15. Disable strict file checking during remote to local scp
Strict file checking can be disabled during scp from remote to local using -T option with scp command as:
$ scp -T email@example.com:/root/Downloads/ubuntu.iso /tmp
Where 192.168.178.128 is the remote host
16. Getting help on scp
To get more details about scp command, its options and usage, please refer its man page.
$ man scp
In this article, we have learned how to use scp command to copy files/directories securely over the network. If you have any other scp command example in your mind, please leave a comment.
Recommended Read: How to Install and Use Putty (SSH Client) on Linux desktop